Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus attacks the host immune system and makes the person susceptible to a range of secondary infections. With 60% of the world’s population, Asia is home to one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Most HIV-infected patients in Asia present with an opportunistic infection, most commonly tuberculosis (TB), cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, non-typhoidal salmonella, pneumocystis, and Penicillium marneffi rather than with early HIV-associated disease. Our work on CNS infections in HIV-infected patients focuses on TB meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis.