Clinical Characteristics, Management and Disease Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients in Indonesia: Clinical Characterisation Protocol (INACO Study)

University of Oxford

Principal Investigator
Associate Professor Raph Hamers

August 2020 – 2023

The project accrues a prospective observational cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in multiple hospitals in Indonesia.


The global COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 pandemic disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but rigorous research of its clinical management and consequences in those settings is lacking. With the fourth-largest population (270 million) globally, Indonesia is facing tremendous challenges, particularly in Jakarta and other hot zones, with the highest death toll in the region.

Systematic approaches are urgently needed to “learn-as-we-go” by characterising clinical patterns, management and outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients, analysed in an international context, to improve the constantly evolving national response.

The project accrues a prospective observational cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in multiple hospitals in Jakarta and Medan, with additional sites being linked in other cities in Indonesia, to generate this critically needed evidence. Clinical data have been shared with the ISARIC platform to support global data analysis. This work also establishes a research platform for ancillary studies of disease mechanisms and therapeutic intervention studies, including the use of wearable devices for patient monitoring, inflammation markers, and SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance.


  1. To describe the clinical patterns, severity, and current management of COVID-19 patients, estimate the disease outcomes, and identify associated factors in Indonesia.
  2. To inform local clinical practice and national policy based on this evidence and identify specific gaps in care.
  3. To establish a COVID-19 clinical research platform for studies and trials.

Bài báo Nghiên cứu

Anis Karuniawati, Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Gilbert Lazarus, Vera Irawany, Dwi Utomo Nusantara, Robert Sinto, Suwarti, Maulana Jamil Nasution, Ferawati, Muhammad Riza Lubis, Eka Nurfitri, Mutiara Mutiara, Hasanul Arifin, Hely Hely, Pramaisshela Arinda D Putri, Ariel Pradipta, Anindya Pradipta Susanto, Meutia Ayuputeri Kumaheri, Bonifacius, Yacobus Da Costa, Claus Bogh, Dodi Safari, Kartini Lidia, Hermi Indita Malewa, Nunung Nuraeni, Sabighoh Zanjabila, Mutia Rahardjani, Fitri Agustia Dewi, Fitria Wulandari, Decy Subekti, Henry Surendra, J Kevin Baird, Anuraj H Shankar, Raph L Hamers.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia
January 25, 2024
DOI: 10.1016/j.lansea.2023.100348
ISARIC Clinical Characterization Group; Esteban Garcia-Gallo, Laura Merson, Kalynn Kennon, Sadie Kelly, Barbara Wanjiru Citarella, Daniel Vidali Fryer, Sally Shrapnel, James Lee, Sara Duque, Yuli V Fuentes, Valeria Balan, Sue Smith, Jia Wei, Bronner P Goncalves, Clark D Russell, Louise Sigfrid, Andrew Dagens, Piero L Olliaro, Joaquin Baruch, Christiana Kartsonaki, Jake Dunning, Amanda Rojek, Aasiyah Rashan, Abi Beane, Srinivas Murthy, Luis Felipe Reyes
Sci Data
July 30, 2022
DOI: 10.1038/s41597-022-01534-9

Liên quan

Dwi Utomo

Dwi Utomo

Anis Karuniawati

TS. Anis Karuniawati

Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu, Universitas North Sumatera

TS. Ayodhia Pitaloka Pasaribu

Robert Sinto, Pelni Hospital

TS. Robert Sinto


TS. Vera Irawany

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